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句子成分,句子结构

  • 句子成分:
    句子是由不同成分构成的,我们分析句子成分是为了更好地掌握句子结构,对语言有更确切的了解。
    一般认为句子成分包括主语、谓语、表语、定语、状语及补语等七种成分。
  • 五种类型及句子成分:
    类型 谓语动词举例或说明 例句分析
    S+Vi talk They are talking.
      S         Vi 
     
    S+V+P feel I feel very happy.
    S  V          P 
     
    S+Vt+O speak She speaks English very well.
    S     Vt      O 
     
    S+Vt+O+O teach He teaches us English.
    S    Vt    IO   DO 
     
    S+Vt+O+C find  He found the book on the desk.
    S    Vt      O         C 
     
  • 句子成分:
    1.主语
    主语是一个句子的主干部分之一,通常由名词、代词、数词、动词不定式、动名词主语从句充当,正常语序是在一个句子的句首。
    Betty likes her new bike.(名词)。
    They usually go to school on foot. (代词)。
    Two and two is four. (数词)
    To learn a foreign language is not easy. (动词不定式短语)
    Playing basketball after school is great fun. (动名词短语)
    That the earth runs around the sun is known to everyone. (主语从句)
    It is known to everyone that the earth runs around the sun. (主语从句)
    2.谓语
    和主语一样,是一个句子的主干部分之一,表示主语所做到动作、具有的特征及所处的状态。
    通常由动词充当实义动词、 连系动词、情态动词及助动词。
    情态动词和助动词不能单独充当谓语,它们必须和实义动词或系动词一起构成谓语。
    实义动词包括及物动词和不及物动词,及物动词后要带宾语。
    通常情况下,谓语位于主语之后。
    They work very hard. (行为动词)
    Tom feels much better now. (系动词+表语)
    We can speak English very well. (情态动词+实义动词)
    They are playing over there. (助动词+实义动词)
    3.宾语
    宾语表示动作的对象或承受着。一般接在及物动词后面或介词后面。
    通常由名词、代词、数词、动词不定式、动名词以及宾语从句构成。
    Tom bought a storybook last week. (名词)
    ----How many books do you want?
    ----I want seven. (数词)
    He wanted to have a cup of tea. (动词不定式短语)
    He enjoys playing basketball. (动名词短语)
    Our teacher said that he would go there. (宾语从句)
    有些动词需要带两个宾语,一个是直接宾语,另一个是间接宾语。(双宾语)
    Please show me you ticket. (间接宾语+直接宾语)
    指人的通常是间接宾语,指物的通常是直接宾语。下列动词可以带直接宾语和间接宾语:
    give, show, send, bring, lend, leave, pass, hand, tell, write, teach, return, throw, buy, fetch.
    Will you give me some milk?= give some milk to me?
    This term she teach us English.
    4.状语
    状语是说明动作或状态特征,用来修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子。
    副词、介词短语、动词不定式以及由:
    if, after, when, as soon as, until, before, though, although, as if ,even if 等引导的从句都可用来作状语。
    You are quite right. (副词)
    She will arrive on Monday. (介词短语)
    He came here in order to learn English. (动词不定式短语)
    We are on holiday today. (名词)
    If it rains tomorrow, we’ll stay at home. (从句)
    As soon as she comes back, I’ll go and see her. (从句)
      5. 定语
    定语是指用来修饰名词或代词(不定代词)的词。
    形容词、形容词性物主代词、名词、动词不定式、介词短语、不定代词、定语从句都可用作定语。
    This is a green jeep. (形容词)
    The building is their teaching-building. (形容词性物主代词)
    The woman doctor is his wife. (名词)
    Attention, please. I have something to tell you. (动词不定式短语)
    The man in front of the gate is Mr. Li. (介词短语)
    There is something wrong with my tape-recorder.  (形容词后置)
    Every student has an English book. (不定代词)
    The book that I bought yesterday is written by Lu Xun.. (从句)
    单个单词作定语一般位于被修饰的名词或代词前,但是当形容词修饰不定代词如:
    something, everything, anything, nothing, someone,等时,常常放在这些词典后面。
    is there anything serious?
    no, nothing serious.
    He has something important to do this afternoon.
    短语和定语从句必须放在被修饰词的后面。
    This is the book that I want to buy.
    The book on the desk is mine.
    The man standing under the tree is Mr. Guo.
    The book given to him is written in English.
    6.表语
    表语是英语中的一个特殊成分,是指跟在系动词be, become, seem, look, sound, feel, get, smell等后面的词语或从句,
    用来说明主语的身份、特征或状态。系动词和表语一起构成句子的谓语。
    表语一般由名词、形容词、介词短语、现在分词、过去分词、副词和表语从句充当。
    Her sister is a nurse. (名词)
    When she heard the news, she got angry. (形容词)
    His cup is broken. (过去分词)
    where are you?
    I’m here. (副词)
    Why didn’t I go to school? The reason is that I was ill. (从句)
    7.宾语补足语
    用来补充说明宾语的成分叫做宾语补足语。形容词、动词不定式、名词、副词,分词短语,介词短语等经常充当宾语补足语。
    宾语和宾语补足语一起统称为复合宾语。
    You may call me Charles or Mr. liu. (名词)
    We must keep our classroom clean. (形容词)
    John asked me to help him. (动词不定式短语)
    Keep the lights on while you are out. (副词)
    We made him clean the room yesterday. (动词不定式短语)
    ----he was made to clean the room yesterday.(主语补足语)

    句子的结构:
    根据对句子结构的划分,英语的句子可以划分为简单句、并列句和复合句三种。
    1.简单句
    句中只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语),句中的各个成分都是由单词和短语表示,这样的句子称为简单句。
    The class are listening to the teacher carefully.   (陈述句)
    Is his brother old enough to join the army?   (一般疑问句)
    How many students are absent today?   (特殊疑问句)
    There are few cars in the parking lot, are there?  (反义疑问句)
    Let’s put off the meeting till next week.   (祈使句)
    How hard these students are working!   (感叹句)

    2. 并列句
    两个或两个以上的简单句用并列连词或标点符号连接而成的句子叫并列句。
    (1)并列句的构成方式
    用并列连词连接,并列连词的前面可加逗号。
    Some students are interested in climbing and others are fond of swimming.
    We fished all day, but we didn’t catch one.
    It is raining hard, so we have to stay at home.
    不用连词而用分号连接
    Hurry up; it’s getting late!
    She tried her best; she failed, however.
    (2)并列句的分类:
    ① 能够引导由两个或两个以上意思相关的分句构成的并列句的连词有:
    and和,而;neither … nor …既不 ……也不……;not only … but (also) …不仅……而且……;both …and ……….和……都;then 然后。
    The bell rang and the students rushed into the classroom.
    Not only did the students dance, but (also) their teachers sang songs.
    ② 可连接两个并列句,含有转折关系的连词有:
    but但是;yet然而,可是;while然而;however然而;still但是;whereas然而,而;nevertheless然而。
    I think he wanted to speak, but I did not hear.
    He worked hard, yet he failed to pass the test.
    The UK is in the thirteenth position, while China is in the middle of the list.
    Some of the students are hardworking whereas some are lazy.
    ③ 能够引导由含有选择意义的两个分句构成的并列句的连词有:
    or 或者,否则;otherwise 否则;either…or…不是…就是…
    Would you like a cup of tea, or shall we get down to business right away?
    Don’t drive too fast or you will have an accident.
    Start right now, otherwise you’ll miss the first train.
    ④ 能够引导由表示因果关系的两个分句构成的并列句的连词有:
    so所以;for因为;therefore因此。
    I must be off now, for my sister is expecting me.
    The bus was crowded, so I had to stand all the way.

    3.复合句
    复合句有一个主句和一个活一个以上的从句构成,主句是句子的主体,从句充当某种句子成分,如:
    主语,宾语,状语,同位语等,但无论是那种从句都不能独立 存在。
    复合句包括主语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句、定语从句和状语从句。
    When we will have the meeting is not decided.    (主语从句)
    It is well-known that many Americans like to eat Chinese food.   (主语从句)
    Do you know when he ancient games began?   (宾语从句)
    That’s because he caught a bad cold.   (宾语从句)
    The idea that they would cross Asia was exciting.   (同位语从句)
    He has a friend whose father is a doctor.   (定语从句)
    I will give her the message as soon as she comes back from the meeting.  (时间状语从句)

  • 五种基本句型:
    英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。
    掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。
    英语五种基本句型列式如下:
    一、 S V (主+谓)
    二、 S V P (主+系+表)
    三、 S V O (主+谓+宾)
    四、 S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾)
    五、 S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补)

    基本句型一:
    S V (主+谓)
    主语:
    可以作主语的成分有名词(如boy),主格代词(如you),动词不定式,动名词等。主语一般在句首。注意名词单数形式常和冠词不分家! 
    谓语:
    谓语由动词构成,是英语时态、语态变化的主角,一般在主语之后。不及物动词(vi.)没有宾语,形成主谓结构,如:We come. 
    此句型的句子有一个共同特点,即句子的谓语动词都能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫做不及物动词,后面可以跟副词、介词短语、状语从句等。
     S │ V (不及物动词)
    1. The sun │was shining.          太阳在照耀着。
    2. The moon │rose.              月亮升起了。
    3. The universe │remains.         宇宙长存。
    4. We all │breathe, eat, and drink.  我们大家都呼吸、吃和喝。
    5. Who │cares?                 管它呢?
    6. What he said │does not matter.   他所讲的没有什么关系。
    7. They │talked for half an hour.    他们谈了半个小时。
    8. The pen │writes smoothly       这支笔书写流利。

    基本句型二:
    S V P (主+系+表)
    此句型的句子有一个共同的特点:
    句子谓语动词都不能表达一个完整的意思,必须加上一个表明主语身份或状态的表语构成复合谓语,才能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫做连系动词。
    系动词分两类:
    be, look, keep, seem等属一类,表示情况;
    get, grow, become, turn等属另一类,表示变化。
    be 本身没有什么意义,只起连系主语和表语的作用。
    其它系动词仍保持其部分词义。
    感官动词多可用作联系动词:
    look well/面色好,sound nice/听起来不错,feel good/感觉好,smell bad/难闻 
     S │V(是系动词)│ P
    1. This │is │an English-Chinese dictionary.  这是本英汉辞典。
    2. The dinner │smells │good.             午餐的气味很好。
    3. He │fell │in love.                    他堕入了情网。
    4. Everything │looks │different.           一切看来都不同了。
    5. He │is growing │tall and strong.         他长得又高又壮
    6. The trouble│is │that they are short of money.  麻烦的是他们缺少钱。
    7. Our well │has gone │dry.               我们井干枯了。
    8. His face │turned │red.                 他的脸红了。

    基本句型三:
    S V O (主+谓+宾)
    此句型句子的共同特点是:
    谓语动词都具有实义,都是主语产生的动作,但不能表达完整的意思,必须跟有一个宾语,即动作的承受者,才能使意思完整。
    这类动词叫做及物动词。宾语位于及物动词之后,一般同主语构成一样,不同的是构成宾语的代词必须是‘代词宾格’,如:me,him,them等 
     S │V(及物动词)│ O
    1. Who │knows │the answer? 谁知道答案?
    2. She │smiled │her thanks. 她微笑表示感谢。
    3. He │has refused │to help them. 他拒绝帮他们。
    4. He │enjoys │reading. 他喜欢看书。
    5. They │ate │what was left over. 他们吃了剩饭。
    6. He │said │"Good morning." 他说:"早上好!"
    7. I │want │to have a cup of tea. 我想喝杯茶。
    8. He │admits │that he was mistaken. 他承认犯了错误。

    基本句型四:
    S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾)
    有些及物动词可以有两个宾语,如:give给,pass递,bring带,show显示。这两个宾语通常一个指人,为间接宾语;
    一个指物,为直接宾语。间接宾语一般位于直接宾语之前。
    一般的顺序为:动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语。如:
    Give me a cup of tea, please.
    强调间接宾语顺序为:
    动词 + 直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。如:
    Show this house to Mr. Smith.
    若直接宾语为人称代词:
    动词+ 代词直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。如:
    Bring it to me, please. 
    S │V(及物)│ o(多指人) │ O(多指物)
    1. She │ordered │herself │a new dress. 她给自己定了一套新衣裳。
    2. She │cooked │her husband │a delicious meal. 她给丈夫煮了一顿美餐。
    3. He │brought │you │a dictionary. 他给你带来了一本字典。
    4. He │denies │her │nothing. 他对她什么都不拒绝。
    5. I │showed │him │my pictures. 我给他看我的照片
    6. I │gave │my car │a wash. 我洗了我的汽车。
    7. I │told │him │that the bus was late. 我告诉他汽车晚点了。
    8. He │showed │me │how to run the machine. 他教我开机器。

    基本句型五:
    S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补)
    此句型的句子的共同特点是:
    动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一个宾语还不能表达完整的意思,必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语,才能使意思完整。
    宾语补足语:位于宾语之后对宾语作出说明的成分。宾语与其补足语有逻辑上的主谓关系,它们一起构成复合宾语。
    名词/代词宾格 + 名词
    The war made him a soldier. 战争使他成为一名战士.
    名词/代词宾格 + 形容词
    New methods make the job easy. 新方法使这项工作变得轻松. 
    名词/代词宾格 + 介词短语
    I often find him at work.  我经常发现他在工作. 
    名词/代词宾格 + 动词不定式
    The teacher asked the students to close the windows. 老师让学生们关上窗户. 
    名词/代词宾格 + 分词
    I saw a cat running across the road. 我看见一只猫跑过了马路.
     S │V(及物)│ O(宾语) │ C(宾补)
    1. They │appointed │him │manager. 他们任命他当经理。
    2. They │painted │the door │green. 他们把门漆成绿色
    3. This │set │them │thinking. 这使得他们要细想一想。
    4. They │found │the house │deserted. 他们发现那房子无人居住。
    5. What │makes │him │think so? 他怎么会这样想?
    6. We │saw │him │out. 我们送他出去
    7. He │asked │me │to come back soon. 他要我早点回来。
    8. I │saw │them │getting on the bus. 我看见他们上了那辆公共汽车。

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